Not 10th century Middle East, but 8th century Iraq, at the very height of Islamic prowess and wealth, the Abbasid caliphate, at that point the richest and most prosperous state in the entire world.
Though the overall economy/society was different, you really did have a large scale experiment in large plantations with agricultural slave labor producing for the market. The only one in the history of the Islamic world, which otherwise *never* practiced agricultural slavery. Perry Anderson discusses it Lineages of the Absolute State, p. 501.
This was not capitalism, but then neither was the slave system in the South truly capitalist either, but rather a subordinate corner of a non capitalist mode of production subordinated to an otherwise capitalist economy and society.
Similarly with the Iraqui slave plantations, also a subordinate part of an overall society with a different mode of production. So they automatically generated racism, just as slavery in the South did.
It would be entirely wrong to view the agricultural economy of the 10th century Middle East with the plantation economy of the Americas from the 16th century onwards. Nor can the forms of slavery and servitude, as Khad noted, be considered synonamous as you seem to believe.